Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Respective leader ship qualities of Ralph, Piggy, Jack and Simon Essay On the island, all four candidates possess different leadership qualities. Although the group elected Ralph as leader, he may not be the ideal boy for the job. The fact that Ralph was holding the conch was one of the main reasons why the group chose him. They had no idea what he would be like as a leader. At first Ralph seems just like any other eleven or twelve year old, just out to have fun. He is excited by the fact that there are no grown-ups on the island, and is not bothered by it at all. Another example of his childish side is where he repeatedly cries Piggy, if only to annoy Piggy. Until Piggy correctly informed him, Ralph was oblivious to the fact that the plane they were in had crashed. This is perhaps a sign that Ralph is not as clever or as alert as other people on the island are. Soon after he is told about the plane crash, Ralph is happily and joyfully interpreting the noise of a fighter plane as it glides through the sky, shooting down its opposition. At first, Ralph is not bothered about how they will be rescued, and claims that his dad (commander in the army) will undoubtedly come and rescue them. However, Piggy soon proves Ralph wrong, and suddenly Ralph feels very uneasy and vulnerable about the situation their in. Its at this point that we see a small element of leadership in Ralph, when he orders Piggy to get his clothes for him. Like piggy, Ralph came up with some good ideas that may help them towards being rescued. He was the one who suggested they build a fire on the mountaintop. The intention was that passing boats, or even aircraft, might see the smoke rising from the island. When Ralph and Piggy found the conch in the sand, Ralph just wanted to play with it happily. He didnt realise that it could be used to round up all the people on the island. When piggy and himself gather everyone on the island together, the topic of being rescued becomes even more important. Ralph became much more concerned and less fun loving. In terms of appearance, Ralph is physically quite strong and energetic, which is a worthwhile quality for leadership. Straight away, it gained him a fair amount of respect and authority within the group, which in turn gave him more control over the group. Piggy, straight away appears a sensible and somewhat mature child. He doesnt possess the element of carelessness that exists in Ralph. Quote: searching out safe lodgements for his feet, My auntie told me not to run on account of my asthma. When most people would have run ridiculously through the creepers, Piggy takes his time and thinks about his actions. Piggy is very persisting which is a good leadership skill. He asks the same question to Ralph twice. Quote: How does he know were here? Then Piggy persists in hammering it in to Ralph, that they wont be rescued very soon. Piggy was also clever enough to realise that their had been a plane crash, and that the remains had been washed out to sea. This shows how alert Piggy is, which is another important leadership quality. In fact during the novel, Piggy is nearly always alert and responsive. It soon becomes clear that Piggy is very friendly and sociable, and he is quick to ask Ralph his name. He congratulates Ralph on his unique ability to swim. Quote: You cant half swim well. This quality is in some ways a good leadership quality, because the group will feel warmed towards him. However, if Piggy was the leader, the group might end up treating him more like a friend than a leader, and might start disobeying his orders. Because Piggy is so kind and caring, he might be a bit reluctant to stand up to people and argue with them. This is perhaps one quality that would make a poor leader. In fact, Piggy rarely gets aggressive and argumentative in the book. He is very shy, and appears afraid of the older and more dominant members in the group. In fact, throughout the book Piggy is very involved with the younger members of the group. Even so, Piggy is very clever and does come up with some good ideas. He was the one who suggested they use the conch to call everyone together. He also realised the impossibility of Ralphs dad coming to rescue them. Although, later on in the book Piggys confidence is slashed greatly and he struggles to impress the group with his ideas. Piggy is also good at judging peoples character. Straight away, Piggy was very unsure about Jack, and his immediate domination in the group. This is perhaps another good leadership quality, especially in terms of being able to understand the feelings of the group, especially the younger ones. In some parts of the book we see a slightly braver side to Piggy. Firstly, where he goes against one of his aunties rules. He goes paddling in the sea, even though his auntie told him not to because of his asthma. Another time, is when he stands up to the older members of the group, criticising them and their actions on the island. Piggys physical appearance is perhaps the main reason why he is not respected by the rest of the group, and consequently why the group doesnt see him as the leader. He is rather fat, and physically weak and unfit. He wears glasses, and couldnt survive without them, and of course he has asthma which severely ruins his physical capabilities. However, physical qualities are not always important in finding a leader and are often just a bonus. When the conch is sounded for the first time, and everyone on the island comes together, we see the arrival of another prospective leader, Jack. Instantly we become aware that Jack is very arrogant and boastful. He automatically believes he should be the leader and he becomes very dominant in the group. Quote: I ought to be chief, because Im chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing C sharp. Its very clear then, that Jack wants to be the leader of the group. He constantly gives orders out to members of the choir, and they obey him grudgingly, yet responsively. Once the whole group was together for the first time, he immediately sprung into action and commissioned himself a high authority. He announced, Weve got to decide about being rescued. When Ralph came up with the idea of building a fire on the mountaintop, the group followed Jack up the mountain, and not Ralph. Jacks ability to grab peoples attention and willingly give out orders, is a quality possessed by all good leaders. However, he can be very bossy and arrogant, and in some respects selfish, which is not appreciated by the group greatly. Respectively, his personality wouldnt make him the ideal leader, especially in terms of building a firm relationship with the group. Jack could also be described as a bit of a show off and also a bit of a know it all. During the groups first ever meeting, Jack suddenly took out a knife from behind him and through it into a tree. All this in an attempt to kill a flying insect resting on the tree trunk that he missed. Again, I think this essence of his personality doesnt make him a good leader. I think when the group is working as a team, Jack would try and do everything himself, rather than take part in a joint effort. Once Ralph is chosen as the leader by the group, simply because he was holding the conch, Jack decided he would be in charge of hunting. This is a large responsibility for a child, especially when it comes to wilfully destroying a living organism. In fact, when Jack is first faced with having to slice through the flesh of an innocent pig, he looses his bottle. It appears that Jack is not as mentally strong as he first appeared. Here we see a more caring side of Jack, which is probably very rarely seen. Jack is effected by his actions in a big way, and commits himself further to hunting. A second failure later on in the book sparks even more frustration. This time Jack throws a spear and misses the pig by far. By now Jack is very anxious to hunt down a pig, and it is on his mind night and day. When he does actually kill a pig, he fills his mind with self-achievement, honour and success. This devotion and dedication is a again a good quality for a leader to have. However, because Jack spent all his time hunting, he ended up slightly neglecting the rest of the group. He didnt help with the building of the shelters at all, and as a result the shelters were a failure. As I see it a good leader would attempt to be involved in as many activities as possible. Not only to gain control of the situation, but also to motivate the group and fill them with confidence. If Jack were a quality leader, he would have taken it upon himself to get involved with all of the groups actions. Having said that, Jacks devotion to hunting did pay off in the end, but there were still other problems on the island that needed Jacks assistance. Such as shelters and organising the group to work efficiently and successfully. Simon is probably the smallest of the four, and possibly the youngest. His first involvement with Jack and Ralph, was when they went to find out if they were on an island or not. Quote: If Simon walks in the middle of us, then we could talk over his head. This shows how Simon is smaller than Jack and Ralph. Plus, it also indicates that Simon is considered as an unimportant member of the group. They make him walk in the middle so they can talk over his head, as if Simon didnt exist. It would seem that Simon is primarily a follower, for this early part of the book. Simon automatically nodded his head to whatever Ralph or Jack said. This is probably not a good quality for a leader, especially in terms of controlling the group. I think Simon feels small compared to Ralph and Jack, and because of this, and his quiet personality, he would rarely try to dominate the group. Additionally, whilst the three were together on their exploration of the island, Simon was the first to let out that he was hungry. Although any child his age would have done the same, compared with Jack, Ralph and Piggy, he would be the weakest and most vulnerable leader. Simon is very imaginative, again like any child his age. When on the exploration with Ralph and Jack, he spots some bushes, which had candle like buds. Quote: Simon spoke first. Like candles. Candle bushes. Candles buds. This also indicates that Simon is quite intelligent and is constantly mulling over ideas in his head. Another occasion where Simon has an idea is again on the exploration trip. Ralph states that they need to draw a map of the island. Simon pops up and suggests they scratch marks on bark, and fill it with black stuff. Whether they used this idea or not, it shows that Simon is trying to be helpful, and wants to be of assistance. Another example of where Simon is trying to be helpful, is where he helps Ralph with the construction of the shelters. Simon is undoubtedly dedicated to helping the group, which is a good leadership skill. He puts in a lot of effort and works hard, even if the achievement is sometimes small. Overall, I think that all four members of the group have good and bad leadership qualities. All four of them combined would make an excellent leadership combination. However, if I had to choose one of them to be leader I would select Ralph. He is dedicated to the group. He has the ability to think of new ideas. He is physically stronger than other members of the group are. The group has a lot of respect for him, which makes controlling the group much easier for Ralph. I think Jack is just too arrogant, and he would just take advantage of leadership, which wouldnt benefit the group. Piggy would make a great leader if he was able to control the group, but his physical appearance is stopping him from doing this. Lastly, Simon is just too small and weak for leadership, and I think it would be unfair for him to take on such an important and demanding role.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Supply and Demand of Labor in the US Melanie Canady I choose to do my research paper on the supply and demand of labor in the United States. I will attempt to illustrate the change in supply and demand in the labor market over the last 10 years. I will also explore the different effects and share many views on how this has played a significate role on the economy in the United States. Supply and Demand is categorized as the forces that make the economy work. The supply of labor is defined as the number of workers who are willing and able to work. The labor demand is the number of employers who are willing and able to hire those workers. Supply and demand of labor differs based on the jobs or occupations that are available. Over the last 10 years the supply and demand of labor in the United States has dropped significantly, while other countries has increased, this is because US based companies are moving jobs or operation overseas, because of different types of incentives that they are taking advantage of in order to make their busine ss more profitable. Since 2000 the labor market has been declining, therefore causing increasing poverty in the United States. This is because of our weak and unequal labor market which began before the great recession. This rising inequality is because of the declining average earnings and the number of workers with the below average wages have grown over the years. There have been many groups affected by this inequality, but one group that has the greatest impact is less educated men. We have seen that this group has experienced a decline in their earnings in the past decade. Because of this it has reduced the income in their families and therefore caused much higher poverty numbers. Why has this happened? First of all todayÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market puts a greater premium on workers education levels and skills than it did a generation ago (Holzer). With the growing technology advancements in our economy it has reduced the demand for the less skilled workers especially in production workers in the factori es. The supply of well educated workers has not kept up with the growing demand. There has been a gap in the percentage of young people earning some kind of college education. Many years back when factory work in the United States was in high demand, there was jobs available and they paid a decent salary. Obtaining a college education was the last thing that was thought of. As companies moved away to other countries, we all experienced a decline in earnings because we had to accept jobs that was available, and without some kind of college education the jobs were a few to none. We can see that the well-paying production and clerical jobs are going away, therefore making the way for jobs requiring some technical training or work experience. In order to improve the labor market we need to improve our education and work-force system and to develop a skilled workforce. This will help to eliminate the high levels of poverty and inequality in the United States. The United States must continuously improve the workforce to be able to compete with other nations. We need to develop a strong workforce and employers need to be able to offer a good pay scale. The demand of labor had decreased in the United States because business value short term profits over making the workforce more efficient. The federal government must address the unemployment and underemployment that we have facing in the United States and to realize that the United States is stuck in the worse economic and social crisis since the Great Depression. It is clear that the labor market had failed to generate enough jobs to support the growth. The demand of labor is just like any like any other goods or service, it can be classified as both supply and demand. Labor is considered to be elastic if the wage increase causes a decline in the rate of employment and it is inelastic if the employers do not decrease employment to respond to the wage increase. If the supply of labor becomes more limited, especially with highly skilled workers, the cost of employing these workers rises. The labor in these skilled jobs may become less elastic, because these jobs cannot be easily filled. The demand of labor is declining in the United States because employers are becoming more focused on profits than investing in the workers. The labor market failure is a result of our government not asking the United States corporations or their leader to help build the productivity in American instead they are providing benefits for them move to other countries or off shore. For a business in the United States it make economic sense for them to close a plant or a business and send jobs offshore where they will perform more efficiently and at a lower cost. They will not invest in the workers in the United States to make them more efficient in supplying the up to date equipment or providing training that will lead to accomplish the goal of the business. America has a two dimensional job crisis: a persistent deficit in the number of jobs that are being created and an insufficient percentage of high quality job. (Kochan) One of the job crisis that the United States economy faced was that they needed 7 million jobs to get back to the levels that was reported before the great depression and another 5 million to account for the growth in the same time period. The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness estimates that there will be a need for 20 million jobs by the year 2020. With these number the United States economy has never created jobs at this rate, therefore setting America up for a serious job deficit for the rest of this decade. The second job crisis that was evidential was that employment benefits represented a key to job quality. Going back to at least World War II, the United States workforce relied on the business to providing health care and retirement benefits. Since the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s this benefit had been shrinking. Employer-provided benefits has been proven to be a play big factor in the workforce in the United States for decades. This benefits gives an employee job satisfaction. In lieu of the employer provided benefits such as health care, pension plans and 401k plans declining, the workers are reporting that they are not satisfied with their jobs anymore. Being provided these benefits has proven to be a piece that has given workers the motivation to perform their jobs at the highest level. That is being proficient and efficient that exceed the level that the business is asking for to be able to achieve the goals of the company. To be able to create 20 million high quality jobs in the United States by year 2020 we must pull together business, labor and government representatives to develop a plan of action. This group needs to determine which issues should be tackled first and what resources will be required. First they should determine what to do to jump start job growth, with this determination it will prevent the jobs and economic crisis from worsening. Another discussion that would be of interest would be to find a way to recapture the lost manufacturing. Some manufacturing jobs could be recaptured if businesses would take into account the total cost of producing goods offshore and shipping back to the United States. The HBS summit should make a proposal on what should be done to bring home millions of jobs over the next several years. Many business that moved jobs offshore came under attack by many because it seem to be a slap in the face for many that lost their jobs to other countries. This caused the government to establish programs that helped the American people to overcome some of the obstacles that they faced with losing their jobs. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) is the primary Federal program that supports workforce development (Congressional Digest). This program provides education and training services for people that has lost their jobs because of layoffs or the closing of a business. This program also will help prepare a person for the next chapter in their lives by allowing them improve their skills and prepare them for skilled jobs by providing them with secondary and postsecondary education, on the job and employer-provided training. It also will provide funding for on the job training and employment services. This means that they will pay for the persons training to a company that will potentially hire them for a position. The Federal government provides workforce development activities through WIAÃ¢â¬â¢s programs and other programs designed to increase the employment and earning of workers (Congressional Digest). The programs that are offered are job search assistance, career counseling, occupational skill training, classroom training or on-the-job training (Congressional Digest). The WIA programs are funded through the state and federal and it administer by the U.S. Department of Labor and is available to unemployed or under employed individuals. In 2012 the programs funds was $4.9 billion dollars, this included $2.6 billion for state grants that was obtained for young, adult and dislocated worker training. WIA Title 1 programs provide employment and training services and also a One-Stop system. This system is required by each state and includes a core service and access to an intensive training service, provide programs and activities that are carried out by a One-Stop partner, and provide access to all labor market information, job search, placement, recruitment and labor exchange services that are authorized under the Wagner-Peyser Act. Each state is required to have a One-Stop center that is accessible either remotely or electronically. In order to fill the gap, businesses needs to find a way to attract and help develop a skilled workforce for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market. Although there are programs in place to assist and help to develop these skills, businesses should also help. If businesses would get involved it will show that they are committed to helping with the job shortage and skills development. Although community colleges offer vocational programs to fill specific jobs, if the businesses would work with the college to develop programs that is specific to their business it would help them obtain a better workforce. This year there will be about $450 million in grants available to help promote and develop a skilled workforce this year. We are in an economy that simply needs to create and get more jobs. The lack of job growth is killing the United States. We are encouraging the young people to go to college and to get their education, but they are graduating and not able to find work. This is because there is a no jobs to offer them after graduation. The United States government should stop and take a look at what is in the United States instead of looking abroad. There is a Work Cited Kochan, Thomas A. A Jobs Compact For Americas Future. Harvard Business Review 90.3 (2012): 64-72. Business Source Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2014 Workforce Investment Act Overview. Congressional Digest 93.3 (2014): 2. MAS Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2014. HOLZER, HARRY J. Upgrading Skills, Upgrading Opportunity. American Prospect 23.6 (2012): 26. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 1 Nov. 2014 HIGGS, ROBERT. Worrisome Changes In U.S. Labor Force And Employment Since 2007. Independent Review 18.3 (2014): 471. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2014 Bridging The Skills Gap. Smart Business Pittsburgh 21.4 (2014): 20. Business Source Complete. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. Mankiw, Gregory. Ã¢â¬Å"Principals of MicroeconomicsÃ¢â¬ How Market Works Seventh Edition Chapter 4
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Carbon fiber Carbon fibers are produced by using heat to chemically change rayon or acrylic fibers. Carbonization occurs at temperatures of 1000Ã ° C to 2500Ã ° C in an inert atmosphere. Carbon fibers are converted to graphite at temperatures above 2500Ã ° C. Carbon and graphite fibers can also be made from pitch, a residual petroleum product. Products that use carbon fibers include heat-shielding materials, aircraft fuselages and wings, spacecraft structures, and sports equipment. You can golf, ride, sail, tennis, drive, cycle, fish, decorate or even fly Carbon Fiber! Carbon fibers are derived from one of two precursor materials Pitch and Pan. Pitch is based carbon fibers have lower mechanical properties and are therefore rarely used in critical structural applications. Pan based carbon fibers are under continual development and are used in composites to make materials of great strength and lightness. The raw material of Pan, acrylonitrile, is a product of the chemical industry and can be manufactured as follows: Acrylonitrile is used as a raw material in acrylic fibers, ABS resin, AS resin, synthetic rubber, acrylamide and other materials. Global production capacity is 4.67 million tons, approximately 60% of which is consumed for acrylic fibers. In the early manufacturing processes acetylene and hydrogen cyanide were used as a raw material, whereas today nearly all AN is manufactured using what is called the Sohio process, whereby an ammoxidation reaction are applied from inexpensive propylene and ammonia. Technological advances, particularly surrounding research into improved catalysts for the Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sohio process, are proceeding, promoted by a concern for energy conservation and lessening the environmental loading. The research aims include improved productivity, reduced byproducts, and lesser wastewater and waste gas. The Sohio process was perfected in 1960 by The Standard Oil Co. of Ohio, owing to the development of an epoch-making catalyst that synthesizes AN in a single- stage reaction using propylene and ammonia. The reaction took place using the fluid-bed od. The P-Mo-Bi group is used as the catalyst and favorable fluidized conditions are maintained by adjusting the physical properties of the catalyst. The reaction gas contains not only AN, but also acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and other byproduct gasses, so AN products are obtained by having the reaction gas absorbed into water, then using evaporation separation. The Sohio process was epoch-making at the time it was developed, but improvements have been made in response to the following conditions: The AN yield of approximately 60% was not very high; The process circulated and used large amounts of water, requiring a lot of
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The United States Constitution gives Americans many rights. One of those rights is the freedom of speech. A controversy has erupted in the United States because the government is unable to determine the limitations on this right. "In early America when our forefathers wrote the Constitution, profanity was not accepted" (Shoeder 72). This makes determining the true definition of "speech" difficult. A majority of people believe profanity is an acceptable form of language. These people feel that they are free to say what they want without worrying about the rights of others. Due to this insensitivity, a child has a hard time walking down a street without hearing offensive words. For example, there is a man standing on a street corner harassing another person. The child hears profane words used by the man, and from this the child relates anger with profanity. Another example is a woman seen arguing with a cashier using profanity in an attempt to get her way, and the child with her begins to believe that to get your way you must cruse. A third example is a waitress having a bad day, and taking it out on the customers the child in the booth next to the customers and the waitress is thinking that this is a proper way to communicate. All of these examples are using improper language for children to hear (Shoeder 72). Parents are then expected to explain and make excuses for the vocabulary being used by others. Profanity has become uncontrollable and has had a great role in the moral decay of our society. The main goal for parents and government officials should be the regulation of profanity in the United States.Adults are formed through the experiences of their childhood. The way a person acts and speaks is often determined at a young age. When a parent uses profanity, a child may feel free to also use these words. For instance, a mother may not intentionally use profanity when cutting her finger while in the kitchen. As a result of the mother's action, a child may use the same words when they get hurt (Hochman 29). Parents play a great part in a young person's upbringing so it is not surprising that children imitate their guardians' actions. Growing up without a role model forces a child to look for other sources to imitate. Television has role models for children to admire most of them are not beneficial for children.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Historical cost is a traditional method of recording assets and liabilities at their original or nominal value without making adjustments for inflation. It first came in evidence in Jun 1979 in a French project after numerous debates. The historical cost principle states that the asset should include all cost necessary to get the asset in place and ready for use. The principle of historical cost is based upon two fundamental principles: the principle of monetary standardization and principle of prudence. The principle of monetary standardization ignores the fluctuations in monetary values of asset and liability. The principle of prudence accounts only the losses but ignores potential profit. Assets are evaluated based on acquiring cost, stock is evaluated based on net realizable value or lower cost and debt according to nominal value not present value. Under U.S GAAP ( Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) most assets are recorded at historical cost except for certain financial instruments like trading securities, available for sale securities, derivatives. Under IFRS (International financial Reporting Standards) historical cost is acceptable but not required for property plant and equipment but intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, and investment property may be revalued to fair value. But revaluation will have to be applied to all assets of particular class and they have to make sure this done with regularity so that there is not that large difference between carrying value and market value. Even though in historical cost there is no routine adjustments for inflation but for calculating book value calculations like depreciation, amortization, depletion are done. Historical cost reflects the real value of items at the date of their entering the company. Historical cost is truly more sure, reliable and checkable value. For asset it is the amount paid or to be paid and in case of debt it is the value of equivalents obtained in exchange of obligation or the value to be paid in cash or cash equivalents to settle the debt. Historical cost is more accurate and relevant to make economic decisions since affects the evaluation and selection of decision rule. In order to make decisions and decide which decision rule to choose it needs information which is of same quality of past decisions. Even for making forecast past data is needed as a basis for forecasting which facilitates decision making in an organization. For example- for forecasting price for the next year a company needs past prices as a basis. Moreover it concentrates on what has been earned rather than what could have been earn. Current value accounting anticipates profits that may never be realized. If (for example) the current market prices of property or investments are very di fferent from their historical cost, this information can be disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. There is no need to adjust the amounts in the statement of financial position or the other primary statements. Accounting data under historical cost is subject to less manipulation because the data obtained came from actual transaction rather than from projected or estimated data. The accountants just record it according to the acquired price. As a result it is reported and measured objectively which helps to minimize manipulation of accounting data. The record of past transaction also helps managers to keep accountability and control since they are accountable to the shareholders. For using as a standard, historical cost can be ascertained easily and economically from past accounting records. The major limitation of historical cost is that there is no consideration of changes in price level. Financial statements prepared under historical cost accounting are composed of past data. Changes in monetary value due to change in general price level is not considered. As a result it fails to provide true and fair value in the financial reports. It also leads to unrealistic value of fixed assets, the most striking example is a property or land. It ignores the market value and considers the acquiring cost. Depreciation is a non-cash expense it aims to create a fund to replace the asset when it becomes obsolete. In historical cost accounting the calculation of depreciation is based on historical cost not on the market value so the fund available at the end of the economic life may not be sufficient for the replacement. Thus it creates insufficient provision for depreciation. It also creates unrealistic profit because the revenues are based on current market price whereas the expenses like depreciation is based on historical cost. As a result it overstate profit. Holding gains on inventories are included in profit. During a period of high inflation the monetary value of inventories held may increase significantly while they are being processed. The conventions of historical cost accounting lead to the unrealized part of this holding gain (known as inventory appreciation) being included in profit for the year. Moreover for companies in the service sector or which invest huge amount of capital in technology reflects poorly the true potential. According to prudence concept it accumulate all losses not profit which hide its real potential. Information based on historical cost gives a invalid trend of the company because the result are not adjusted for changes in prices. Only if the value were adjusted the comparison would have been fair. Historical cost no longer reflect economic reality.
Monday, September 16, 2019
AO2/A03 How Steve Brankin manages people, finances and resources with in Asidua In Asidua the management of people, finances and resources under Steve are central to business success. He undertakes this huge managerial task in a number of ways. Interviewing Steve gave me a great insight into these methods. Managing People Recruitment, Retention and Training of Employees. Employees in Asidua have to go through a short listing process and a job interview. Jobs are advertised on their website, Asidua.com kike the example in appendix 1 showing the job vacancy for an Ã¢â¬Å"Experience NET DesignerÃ¢â¬ . Steve will also make sure that this job is advertised properly so people capable of doing the job can apply. Another method of recruitment overseen by Steve is the advertisements of job vacancies at career fairs for example the UUJ Engineering and IT Careers Fair which is held at Jordanstown University. (See appendix 2) at this event Asidua meet prospective graduates and placements to discuss future opportunities with Asidua. This is an excellent way of recruitment as Steve can see the level of employees that have just come out of higher education. This fair at Jordanstown is the perfect place for this as it would appeal to a number of high performing graduates. Advertising in relevant places for example, Universities and schools. On the Asidua website they offer graduates at QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s a scholarship worth up to Ã £25,000, which includes at least eight weeks paid summer work between each academic year, a guaranteed paid industrial placement in year three and after completion of industrial placement, the opportunity for paid part-time work during the academic year. (See appendix 3) This creates a positive corporate image for Asidua as it show they invest in education and Asidua believe it is important. It also means Steve can employ people straight out of university as they will understand AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims and the graduates will be trained through the scholarship. Allocation roles and responsibilities to all levels of employees After advertising these posts, Steve starts the application process. For every job within Asidua completes a Job Description, Person Specification and a Job Outline, all these are part of the application process. Applicants use these to see whether they are suitable for the job, and whether certain qualities are met by the applicants. (See appendix 4 application form) Looking at the application it shows that employees within Asidua have high level of expertise and experience due to the large amount of space left on the form for information. The application form specifically asks about the applicationsÃ¢â¬â¢ personal interests professional organisations they have been involved in and it also asks them to mention skills they have gained. For all these sections there is a large box to fill out, this shows us that Steve is looking for people that have high expertise and also that they have an interest or a passion for something. This large amount of information is an efficient way of short-listing people suitable for the job in question. The applicant Curriculum Vitae is also further help in the application process. The Job Description shows the Job Outline and Personal Specification for an Experienced NET Developer in Asidua. You can download these from the Asidua website and they provide lots of information for the applicant. Looking at the Job Description it clearly shows that a lot is expected of the person applying. Asidua offer lots of employment benefits, for example a 5% bonus per annum, pension scheme, annual leave, salary sacrifice scheme (childcare vouchers), flexible working, sick absence, death in service and health insurance. These working conditions are very high are going to make staff very motivated and this is why Steve has these in place, and this is why in March 2011 Asidua became the first employer to be shortlisted twice for the prestigious University of Ulster Placement Employers of the Year Award. (See appendix 6) Being awarded this shows Steve strong managerial skills. Form looking at the Job Description it is clear that Steve isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just interested in their qualifications he pays great attention to their personal attributes, requiring employees to be open-minded, flexible, have good communication skills and being able to work as part of a team. This shows that Steve wants his employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities to create a very effective and profitable work force. Motivating and developing staff Once all this criteria has been met, it is very important that Steve keeps the motivating of staff at high levels. This is mainly done by investing in employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s development at Asidua, making sure that they are all keeping strong communication to maintain morale. Methods of training that Mr Brankin will use will encourage employees to update their regular skills in a regular basis which will lead them to enhancing their overall performance. There are several motivational theories that we can look at. One of them is MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs and Elton MayoÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory. (See appendix 7 and 8) Mr Brankin doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t plan to motivate his staff under these theories, Human Resources will manage these. However many of the policies in these two theories may been shown, as long as they are relevant to Asidua when situations arise. By looking at these theories we can see how Steve as put them into practice in Asidua in many different ways. Strong communication within Asidua are how informal events such as their breakfast club, sports events and Christmas dinners. Employees will feel a sense of community when they are a part of these things. This shows that Mr Brankin and the Human Resources Department are using the correct methods similar to Elton MayoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, which clearly focuses on working conditions that are not affecting employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation. It is the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction that gives them a sense of recognition. Setting clear objectives and receiving feedback A manager such as Steve Brankin uses close supervision, carefully dictating how his employees complete their jobs. The understanding that employees dislike work and responsibility and the only reason they are there is for the financial reward. Giving employees praise is a positive and effectiveÃ way to get employees working. Asidua do this by appraisal/performance management schemes. This enables objectives and training needs to be agreed at the start of the performance review cycle and reviewed as appropriate in the year. Steve has said in our questionnaire that feedback is an ongoing basis, and it is formally documented at the mid way point and at the end of the cycle. Another way Asidua set objectives is by setting task specifically suited to the employees skills, knowledge and experience, by doing this employees within Asidua will be given task that they are interested in and it means they will be completed to the best of the persons abilities. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs has been ignored in Asidua as Steve Brankin uses it to look at the management in Asidua. He uses this theory as it has the idea that needs are essential for employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation. Physical of basis needs are met within Asidua with, salary, shelter and warmth. The second main need is security, which employees within Asidua will also feel as they will be working in great conditions and the employees have job stability. Mr Brankin shows employees that the business is under his management and proves that Asidua are investing in their employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term employment. Staff development Staff development is very important in Asidua; this is because of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term employment, which creates a sense of community within the business. EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is excellent in Asidua as they are all well known and this can lead to high levels of motivation. The cost of recruitment is lowered because of this as there are a lot of stages that need to be taken into consideration for example short-listing. So the better developed AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s staff are the less employment is needed to replace past employees. Resolving conflict and maintaining morale Sense of belonging is important in Asidua. Steve puts a large emphasis onÃ the management style, the Ã¢â¬Å"open doorÃ¢â¬ policy. This means that employees can openly and freely talk about their problems or concerns they may have or that may arise between employees, but all these issues can be resolved through training that managers receive to deal with these problems. Asidua have a Grievance and Harassment policy, this is where employees can report issues more formally. Opportunities with Asidua for employees to make decisions meet MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy about self-esteem. SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic management style means that this is being strongly met. Also employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions are listened to and not just thrown away. An example of this are the weekly meetings held in Asidua with Asidua with Mr Brankin and his employees. They also have the opportunity to feedback online, with different online forums. EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions are valued, and they are a major part of the decision making process. Looking at how employees within Asidua are given freedom to carry out their own ideas, this shows that there is an extensive amount of training provided for the employees wanting to carry out their own projects or to press into the area that interest them the most. This management allows employees to keep their morale high as they have the freedom at work to do the things that interest them. Managing finance SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s management of finance is very important, just like any other management in Asidua it is clearly a very important factor of the whole business. Money that the business has and earns has to be distributed correctly thought out all the departments within Asidua. Without the correct finance management Asidua go into bankruptcy which is something Steve doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to happen to his company. When Steve is managing finance, decision making is crucial, the financial systems used within Asidua helping him make these important decisions. Forecasting Forecasting gives Asidua a way to manage its finances in a way that they can see future revenues and expenditures. It looks at three main sections: Receipts which Asidua expect to receive from sales. The payments of Asidua such as monthly costs including the rent and rates of their main business sites The net in/out amount of cash being overall difference between receipts and payments given an indication of how much money id left over by the end of the month. All this is vital to Steve so he can make sure any expected cash surpluses are used effectively and can also predict any future problems. Mr Brankin can then work to fix the problem so that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get forced into liquidation. This method of forecasting means that business are able to evaluate any liabilities which need to be met and use the budgets from the facilitate the budget seen from this to facilitate Asidua in setting targets and then been able to measure performance against this by looking at variances which may arise in forecasting Steve can make important strategic decisions if from looking at AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s cash flow forecast it can be seen that their assets will not be able to meet liabilities this will cause Steve to make immediate action showing this method is extremely useful for him in the financial decision making process. Cash flow management Cash flow statements will similarly be used this Mr Brankin to assist in this decision making process. This cash flow statement is the actual record of receipts and payments in the business as opposed to those which are forecasted the shows the actual journeys the cash has gone through in Asidua overtime and will be used by Steve to evaluate and compare these actual receipts and payments from the business with those forecasted in the cash flow forecast. It similarly uses a form of budget in Asidua as this record of cash flow in Asidua will allow Mr Brankin to plan any future cash flow requirements andÃ allow him to make sure cash surpluses are used affectively. Like forecasting if cash flow is not managed effectively the business could go into administration. Steve will also use profit and loss accounts to manage finance. Profit and loss accounts are basically a summary of the business is transaction over a given period of time normally 12 months deduction the total expenditure from the total income. It is different from cash flow statement and forecasting in the way that is produced primarily for business purposes to show AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders and potential partners in Asidua. This information is obtained by HM Revenue and Customs to solve out taxation. This account also give Steve a way to look at the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ performance monitoring whether AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s actual performance is in correspondence with budgets. Financial decision making this is similar to profit and loss accounts as it shows the businesses liabilities and assets in balance sheets. These are different as they show the value of Asidua on a particular day, the idea of this is to make sure that every day thing is balanced with Asidua. This means it must be updated constantly. However it is a brilliant method of finance management adopted by Steve Brankin. Making day-to-day financial decisions is very important. Profits and break even analysis. Giving advice on capital investment There are many different financial methods which Steve has not adopted. One of these is break even analysis. Break even is when AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s total revenue is equal to their total cost, by known the point these two meet is very important for Steve as he can aim to meet this break even point. This is the number of items which have to be sold to make a profit. It can also be used to avoid making a loss. This is because any amount of product sold under this point would mean that there is a loss made and cost would not be covered. There is a margin of safety within break even analysis; this is very useful as it shows the difference between the number of goods Asidua would have sold between the break even point and the selected level of activity. ThisÃ is very practical for Asidua as it monitors how they are making a profit. When managing finance the decision of capital investment is also very important. Mr Brankin must invest time into looking at this as capital is very important factor of production. When Steve decides whether or not to invest capital into Asidua a number of factors must be thought of. For example when Steve puts forward the business plans to continue investment in Northern IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s young talent, which they got three new scholars to join Asidua through their scholarship program. Those participating in the program had to go through serious high levels of application. This has its benefits as coming from this investment into the support of new IT and engineering student; this will lead Asidua to high profit and success great than the initial cost of the program. Liaising with outside agencies e.g. Inland Revenue Steve makes sure that Asidua liaises with several companies within Asidua; this is mainly done for financial reasons. Asidua have links with Inland Revenue, they bring together the direct taxes and other duties of the business. It is important that areas for example finance is handled by specialists. The investment with Inland Revenue is very effective as they provide Steve with professional financial support. Managing other resources. Stave is in charge of the information systems within in Asidua. These are crucial for a business such as Asidua to run smoothly. Information systems It is evident that Asidua and Steve use information systems and are heavily involved in them. As a company that specialise in computers they used computer aided design to manage most of their information and capture diagrams. Desktop publishing is also used in Asidua to manage information. This is used in lots of businesses and is the software to create publication documents on a computer. This allows large amounts of books to be publishedÃ and this method enhances SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s managerial skills for information. Linux operating systems is also used within Asidua. This operating system can be installed on a wide variety of computer devices including mobile phones. This shows that this operating system is very effective and Steve can use it in many ways. Maintenance and renewal assets AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s website is one of their assets as it allows their stakeholders and those within Asidua to find out about the business, the employees, projects under consideration and events. This is an excellent way to promote the business as this is based on the high quality of the website and it is important for the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Apart from AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s employees having the benefit of being able to be updated via AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s public web page, the business also have an intranet system in place. This system is AsiduaÃ¢â¬â¢s private network created for employees which enables them to find items in their website easier. This has its benefits as it motivates employees and improves morale; this asset provided by Asidua must be renewed and updated regularly under SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s management for success.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Bielecki et al. Research Paper Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacteria, particularly known for causing nosocomial infections (1). As a pathogen, it effectively causes disease by acquiring resistance to antibiotics that would otherwise inhibit growth (2). Reported rates of infection range from 0. 6 to 32% across various clinical environments because Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained multi-drug resistance (2). Certain strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gamma rays can break down the hydrocarbons in crude oil and are thus useful in cleaning up oil spills (3).The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 6. 3 million base pairs long, which is the largest bacterial genome to be sequenced (4). It contains about 5,570 open reading frames (4). Argyrin is a naturally synthesized antibiotic peptide extracted from myxobacteria (1). It has cytotoxic properties, suppresses the immune system, and is a highly active antibiotic used against Pseudomonas strains (1). Figure 1. Argyrin A structure. Bielecki et al chose to isolate these resistant clones in order to observe the mechanisms by which the P. eruoginosa acquires resistance to Argyrin A within the fusA1 gene (1). They isolated these clones by growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains on agar that contained Argyrin A (1). After incubation, the colonies that formed were able to grow in the presence of argyrin; these colonies were then streaked onto plates with Argyrin A again to ensure accuracy of obtaining resistant strains (1). A point mutation is an alteration of one base pair within a DNA sequence (5). The point mutations, which caused changes in the amino acid sequence within the fusA1 gene, were different among the six isolates (1).They might have conferred resistance because the mutations caused the same impact on the resulting protein (1). The gene was identified by sequencing the whole genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with the bacterial target of Argyrin A, which showed mutations within fusA1 that encode for the elongation factor EF-G in resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). The diagram below illustrates the process of elongation during the translational phase in EF-G along with EF-Tu (12). Figure 2. Elongation during ribosome-catalyzed translation (12). Bielecki et al confirmed the identity of the gene by using genetic maps. This required sequencing the resistant strain a second time to make a reference strain to compare the genes at a specific loci (1). Adding a mutation into the sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain demonstrated a resistance phenotype (1). Surface plasmon resonance is a lab technique that involves aiming a beam of light at a thin metal sheet, which catalyzes a reaction by causing movement in the molecules behind the metal sheet (6).SPR was useful in this experiment because it confirmed that fusA1 is the target gene for Argyrin A, rather than fusidic acid, the antibiotic previously recognized (1). A heterologous protein, or a heterologue, is a protein that differs in structure and function relative to a given protein; not all proteins with different amino acid sequence necessarily differ in function (7). N-terminal His6-tags were fused to the fusA1 genes before undergoing the SPR experiments, causing the production of heterologous proteins in relation to the original fusA1 (1).According to Bielecki et al, the SPR procedures supported that Argyrin A binds to fusA1 by the resulting KD value (1). This shows that Argyrin A has a target on the heterologous protein (1). It is important to compare the variations made in the mutations because the other bacteria may have a different sequence that can still achieve resistance (1). It cannot be assumed that all bacterial strains will be identically resistant or sensitive because they all contain differences in their genomes (1). By mapping the mutated genes, the authors found the locations of the mutations in different domains (1).They deduced that the mutations exhibiting resi stance to Argyrin A in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are found on opposite sides of the domain, despite the fact that most mutations involving fusidic acid and Argyrin A are located on the same side of the domain (1). This shows that the binding sites for fusidic acid and Argyrin A must be independent of each other (1). Both fusA1 and the second gene, fusA2, encode for the elongation factor EF-G (1). The fusA2 gene was expressed 30 times less in the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in the fusA1 gene, as shown by RNA sequencing (1).Homology modeling uses the model of a target protein to produce an estimated structure of a homologous template protein (8). After creating a homology model of Argyrin AÃ¢â¬â¢s protein structure, Bielecki et al concluded that it Ã¢â¬Å"most likely binds to a site distinct from that of fusidic acid, indicating a new mode of protein biosynthesis inhibition by Argyrin AÃ¢â¬ (11). Multi-drug resistant pathogens pose a very big risk on the world because the y can easily mutate their genomes to adopt resistance to a given antibiotic and persist in causing harmful diseases (1).The authors used MDR clinic isolates in order to observe the mechanisms by which these pathogens mutate to build resistance to Argyrin. The fact that eleven of the twelve isolates showed sensitivity to Argyrin suggests that Argyrin is a useful antibiotic in preventing infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). There are other factors besides the uptake and export of Argyrin that affect Pseudomonas aeruginosaÃ¢â¬â¢s sensitivity to Argyrin, such as efflux pumps (1); however, the uptake and export of Argyrin in other bacteria does play a role in its sensitivity (9).A proteasome is a hollow protein complex with active sites that break down proteins by proteolysis (10). The degraded peptides that are produced can be used for other functions in the cell (10). Argyrin A is a factor used to inhibit proteasome function, yet there is no distinct evidence that Argyrin A bind s to the site on the proteasome (1). This paper is important because it analyzes the resistance and sensitivity to Argyrin A in various strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.This bacteria has been a leading cause in nosocomial infections, so it is important to determine which antibiotics best work to stop the spread of disease (1). About ten percent of patients in hospitals across the United States obtain a significant nosocomial infection (13). Although there are effective methods to prevent the spread of pathogens in clinical environments (13), it is important to study how bacteria acquire resistance, so that scientists can develop ways to inhibit the spread of nosocomial infections by multi-drug resistant pathogens.Bibliography Bielecki, P. , Lukat, P. , Husecken, K. , Dotsch, A. , Steinmetz, H. , Hartmann, R. W. , Muller, R. , and Houssler, S. (2012) Mutation in elongation factor G confers resistance to the antibiotic Argyrin in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Che mbiochem. 13, 2339-2345. Obritsch, M. D. , Fish, D. N. , MacLaren, R. , and Jung, R. (2005) Nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: epidemiology and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy. 25, 1353-1364. Iqbal, S. , Khalid, Z. M. and Malik, K.A. (1995) Enhanced biodegradation and emulsification of crude oil and hyperproduction of biosurfactants by a gamma ray-induced mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 21,Ã 176Ã¢â¬â179. C. K. Stover, X. Q. Pham, A. L. Erwin, S. D. Mizoguchi, P. Warrener, M. J. Hickey, F. S. L. Brinkman, W. O. Hufnagle, D. J. Kowalik, et al. (2000) Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and opportunistic pathogen. Nature. 406, 959-964. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Point mutation. Accessed 17 Oct. 2012 http://www. britannica. om/EBchecked/topic/54744/point-mutation Manfield, I. (2009) Biacore surface plasmon resonance. Univ. of Leeds, Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology. Accessed 1 8 Oct. 2012 http://www. astbury. leeds. ac. uk/facil/SPR/spr_intro2004. htm Jackson, J. H. (1999) Terminologies for gene and protein similarity. Michigan State Univ. , Dept. of Microbiology. Accessed 19 Oct. 2012 https://www. msu. edu/~jhjacksn/Reports/similarity. htm Bevan, D. R. (2003) Homology modeling. Virginia Tech, Dept. of Biochemistry. Accessed on 19 Oct. 012 http://www. biochem. vt. edu/modeling/homology. html Sasse, F. , Steinmetz, H. , Schupp, T. , Petersen, F. , Memmert, K. , Hofmann, H. , Heusser, C. , Brinkmann, V. , von Matt, P. , Hofle, G. , and Reichenbach, H. (2002) Argyrins, immunosuppressive cyclic peptides from myxobacteria. I. Production, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. J. Antiobiot. 55, 543-551. Rape, M. , and Jentsch, S. (2002) Taking a bite: proteasomal protein processing. Nat. Cell Biol. 4, 113-116. Bielecki, P. , Lukat, P. , Husecken, K. , Dotsch, A. Steinmetz, H. , Hartmann, R. W. , Muller, R. , and Houssler, S. (2012) Mutation in e longation factor G confers resistance to the antibiotic Argyrin in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chembiochem. 13, 2340. Simonovic, M. and Steitz, T. A. (2009) A structural view on the mechanism of the ribosome-catalyzed peptide bond formation. BBA Gene Reg. Mech. 1789, 612-623. Abedon, S. T. (2009) Nosocomial infections. Ohio State University. Accessed on 27 Oct. 2012 http://www. mansfield. ohio-state. edu/~sabedon/biol2053. htm